19. Plant Appendix

(Plants introduced to North America by Europeans marked *)

(Due to the extinction or near extinction of most Florida and Gulf Coast tribes I have drawn on Seminole medicine, impressive, to lend insight. The Seminole named many ailments for animals, elements, and so forth. A list of the ‘sicknesses’ are provided at the end of the appendix)

(The Green Corn Ceremony, also called Busk, includes a lot of Green Corn  Medicine referred to in this appendix. I highly recommend further reading on this ceremony, it being perhaps the most important among southeastern tribes. Links:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Corn_Ceremony.html      http://www.nativeamericansnetroots.net  https://media.wcu.edu/groups/par367/wiki/ebb42/

(Please note that Natives draw a distinction between shamans, practitioners, prophets, and medicine people, and witches. The term “witch” is used by them and subsequently in the context of this appendix as a reference to those who use supernatural abilities to bring harm to others)

Achillea millefolium*
1.    Iroquois: Panacea given to sick infants
Acorus calamus
1.    Iroquois: Used to detect bewitchment
Aesculus flava
1.    Cherokee: Used to make ceremonial masks
Aesculus pavia
1.    Cherokee: Nut carried in pocket for good luck
Ageratina altissima
1.    Cherokee: Panacea used for anything; decoction stems used as witchcraft medicine
2.    Iroquois: Panacea; decoction stems used as witchcraft medicine
Agrimonia gryposepala
1.    Iroquois: Infusion of roots and flowers as wash to insure baskets or other items sell
Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
1.    Iroquois: Decoction used to paint traps, or bows and arrows as a charm to get game
Amaranthus hybridus
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Amaranthus retroflexum
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
2.    Iroquois: Decoction and doll used to make a person extremely ill
Amaranthus spinosus
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Ambrosia artemisiifolia
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Ambrosia trifida
1.    Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Amelanchier canadensis
1.    Iroquois: Bloom used as an indicator when to plant corn
Anaphallis margaritacea
1.    Cherokee: Leaves chewed as substitute for chewing tobacco
Andropogon virginicus
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Anemone canadensis
1.    Iroquois:  Infusion plant and alcohol used to counteract witchcraft
Anemone virginiana
1.    Iroquois: Decoction roots taken as an emetic and used as wash to cure love sickness; infusion stems and roots used as love medicine for either sex; infusion smashed roots taken as an emetic to remove bewitchment; roots placed under pillow to dream the truth about wife’s dishonesty; root used as revenge against someone who played a cruel trick
Angelica atropurpurea
1.    Delaware: Smoke plant
2.     Iroquois: Plant used to punish evil person; infusion root used as wash to remove ghosts from house
Aquilegia canadensis
1.    Iroquois: Plant used to detect bewitchment
Arctium lappa*
1.    Iroquois: Plant or root used in numerous ways for sorcery and to produce illness in others
Arctium minus*
1.    Iroquois: Plant or root used in numerous ways for sorcery and to produce illness in others
Artemisia frigida
1.    Delaware: Leaves chewed as ceremonial medicine
Asarum canadense
1.    Cherokee: Dried leaves pounded and used as snuff
2.    2. Iroquois: Plant used to detect or protect people from witchcraft; infusion taken for protection before visiting the sick
Asclepias incarnata
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant used to increase one’s strength to be able to physically punish a witch
Aster novae-angliae
1.    Iroquois: Plant used as Love Medicine
Caltha palustris
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root used as emetic to vomit out love charm
Calycanthus floridus
1.    Cherokee: Used for fragrance
Cardamine concatenata
1.    Iroquois: Plant used to mesmerize; rubbed on fishing and hunting gear as hunting medicine; as love medicine roots or plants carried or placed in mouth to attract women; ritual infusion taken or placed on injured part as Little Water Medicine; panacea; plant used for divination
Cardamine diphylla
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root taken when love medicine is too strong
2.    Cherokee: Leaves smoked
Cardamine douglassii
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root used to divine the perpetrator of witchcraft
Chelone glabra
1.    Iroquois:  Infusion root taken as anti-witchcraft medicine
Chenopodium ambrosioides
1.    Creek: Panacea for a great many ailments
Chrysobalanus icaco
1.    Seminole: Decoction of wood ashes placed on tongue to cleanse body and strengthen a marriage
Chrysophyllum oliviforme
1.    Seminole: Decoction of wood ashes placed on tongue to cleanse body and strengthen a marriage
Cirsium vulgare*
1.    Delaware: Infusion plant used as herbal steam for rheumatism
Cissus verticillata
1.    Seminole: Plant used at the Busk Ceremonies
Clematis virginiana
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
2.    Iroquois: Decoction stems used as wash to induce strange dreams
Clintonia umbellulata
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine
Cocos nucifera
1.    Seminole: Plant used to make ceremonial rattles
Collinsonia canadensis
1.    Iroquois: Panacea
Conyza canadensis
1.    Seminole: Plant rubbed on the body by doctor to rid someone of his wife
Corallorrhiza maculata
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine; hunting medicine; love medicine; infusion root anti-witchcraft medicine
Cornus sericea
1.    Iroquois: Panacea; compound plant and dried snake blood used as witching medicine
Crataegus punctata
1.    Iroquois: Decoction taken to prevent dire illness caused by witchcraft
Crataegus spathulata
1.    Cherokee: Infusion of bark taken or used as a wash to protect ball players from being tackled
Crataegus submollis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction and doll used make another extremely sick
Crotalaria sagittalis
1.    Delaware: Used as a powerful narcotic
Cucurbita pepo
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Cynoglossum virginianum
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Desmondium glutinosum
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine
Dirca palustris
1.    Iroquois: Decoction stems used as an aphrodisiac
Elymus canadensis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant with other plants as medicine to soak corn seeds before planting; decoction roots used as a soak for corn medicine
Elymus hystrix
1.    Iroquois: Decoction leaves with reed grass roots used to soak corn seed before planting
Epilobium angustifolium
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine; panacea; decoction and doll used for black magic
Eryngium yuccifolium
1.    Creek: Infusion of root to create access to good health
2.    Seminole: Plant believed to cure anything
Erythronium americanum
1.    Cherokee: Root chewed and spit into river to make fish bite
Euonymus obovata
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant taken by person who has been bewitched
Eupatorium maculatum
1.    Iroquois: Decoction roots used as wash for anti-love medicine
Eupatorium perfoliatum
1.    Iroquois: Plant used for sorcery; used for divination
Fagopyrum esculentum
1.    Iroquois: Decoction taken by mother who is committing adultery and making her baby sick
Fragaria virginiana
1.    Iroquois:  Fruit used as symbol of Creator’s beneficence in Strawberry Thanksgiving ritual
Galeopus tetrahit
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root taken as emetic to cure bewitchment
Galium triflorum
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine; plant placed in woman’s bed as love medicine
Gaultheria procumbens
1.    Cherokee: Leaves chewed as substitute for chewing tobacco
Gaylussacia baccata
1.    Iroquois: Berries used ritually by those desiring health and prosperity for the coming season
Gentiana andrewsii
1.    Iroquois: Dried root hung in house to protect against malevolent charms; dried root to cure the spirit of jealousy
Geranium maculatum
1.    Iroquois: Root placed in victim’s tea to counteract love medicine
Geum aleppicum
1.    Iroquois:  Compound decoction of roots taken to vomit out love medicine
Geum canadense
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant used as love medicine; panacea
Gleditsia triacanthos
1.    Cherokee: Infusion of bark taken or used as wash for ball players to protect them against being tackled
2.    Creek: Pod considered a panacea and good antidote for children
Gnaphalium obtusifolium
1.    Creek: Plant used as wash for person afflicted by ghosts
Hackelia virginiana
1.    Cherokee: Love charm
Hamamelis virginiana
1.    Iroquois: Decoction root panacea
Hepatica nobilis
1.    Iroquois: Chewed by women to bewitch men and make them crazy by affecting their hearts
Ilex vomitoria
1.    Cherokee: Used to evoke ecstasies
Impatiens capensis
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Impatiens pallida
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Inula helenium*
1.    Iroquois: Plant a panacea
Ipomoea pandurata
1.    Iroquois: Used as Little Water Medicine; plant has magical potency
Juglans nigra
1.    Iroquois:  Infusion bark used as medicine for rain
Juniperus virginiana
1.    Delaware: Infusion twigs used as herbal steam for rheumatism
2.    Seminole: Emetic for rainbow sickness, thunder sickness, scalping sickness, mist sickness, smudge for eagle sickness, smudge for fawn sickness, ghost sickness, hog sickness; used as a ritual emetic; used as a baby charm to prevent nightmares about opossums and raccoons;  leaves used to make a witchcraft medicine; leaves kept with eagle tail plumes to prevent the feathers from causing illness
Kalmia latifolia
1.    Cherokee: Panacea leaf salve used for healing
Lactuca canadensis
1.    Cherokee: Ingredient in Green Corn Medicine
Lagenaria siceraria
1.    Cherokee: Ceremonial rattles
2.    Iroquois:  Made into rattles used by Medicine Societies
Laportea canadensis
1.    Iroquois:  Decoction taken when “your woman goes off and won’t come back”
Lilium philadelphicum
1.    Iroquois: Dry plants in sun, if they twist together wife has been unfaithful; decoction of roots taken by wife as an emetic and used as a wash if husband has been unfaithful
Linaria vulgaris*
1.    Iroquois: Taken as an anti-love medicine emetic; infusion plants taken to vomit out bewitchment; used as an inhalant in sweat lodge
Lindera benzoin
1.    Creek: Branches used as herbal steam to cause sweating for pain
2.    Iroquois: Decoction root a panacea
Lobelia cardinalis
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine; decoction roots and plants used as wash for love medicine; a panacea used for any ailment; decoction plant taken for sickness caused by grieving; infusion root taken or poultice applied to trouble caused by witchcraft; panacea
Lobelia inflate
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant taken as either love or anti-love medicine; decoction taken to counteract sickness caused by witchcraft
Lobelia kalmia
1.    Iroquois: Infusion taken as emetic to remove effect of love medicine
Lobelia siphilitica
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant taken to counteract bewitchment
Lobelia spicata
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant taken as an emetic for lovelorn
Lonicera dioica
1.    Iroquois: Decoction vines taken as an emetic to counter love medicine
Lophophora williamsii
1.    Delaware: Placed in small beaded bags and worn around neck to protect against illness
Lycopus virginicus
1.    Cherokee: Infusion taken at Green Corn Ceremony
Lythrum salicaria
1.    Iroquois:  Decoction plant taken for fever and sickness caused by the dead
Maianthemum racemosum
1.    Iroquois:  Compound used for witching
Malus species
1.    Creek: Strong decoction taken, used as wash, and herbal steam for rabies
Malva neglecta
1.    Iroquois: An emetic used for love medicine
Medeola virginiana
1.    Iroquois: Panacea or Little Water Medicine; root chewed and spit on hook to make fish bite (fishing medicine)
Melilotus officinalis*
1.    Iroquois:  Flowers used in bouquets to perfume house
Mentha X piperita*
1.    Iroquois: Little Water Medicine; infusion plant to repel witchcraft
Mitchella repens
1.    Delaware: Herbal steam for rheumatism; infusion roots and twigs as herbal steam for swollen muscles and stiff joints
2.    Iroquois: Compound plant used as love medicine
Mitella diphylla
1.    Iroquois: Seed used as sacred bead and swallowed in reinstatement ritual; whole plant used as body and weapon wash to counter bad luck
Monarda species
1.    Creek: Decoction taken and used as wash to protect from ghosts
Myrica cerifera
1.    Seminole: Decoction of wood ashes placed on tongue to cleanse the body and strengthen a marriage; smoke plant
Nicotiana rustica
1.    Cherokee: Smoke plant used extensively in ritual
2.     Iroquois: Leaves used for ritual purposes
Nicotiana tabacum
1.    Cherokee: Smoke plant used extensively in ritual
2.     Iroquois: Leaves smoked in ritual
Nuphar lutea
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root used as ghost medicine; root hung in house to keep witches away
Onopordium acanthium
1.    Iroquois: Emetic to counter witchcraft; decoction used for witchcraft poison
Osmunda cinnamomea
1.    Iroquois: Decoction taken for malaise
Osmorhiza
1.    Iroquois: Infusion roots used as a soak for hunting tools (hunting medicine); root chewed and spit on bait as fishing medicine; roots chewed as anti-love medicine
Oxalis stricta
1.    Iroquois: Decoction used as anti-witch medicine
Panax quinquefolius
1.    Creek: Plant used to keep ghosts away, and used in ceremonies
2.     Delaware: Panacea to cure anything
3.    Seminole: Plant rubbed on body and clothes to get back a divorced wife; plant with other plants used as a baby charm to protect against nightmares about raccoons or opossums; plant used as witchcraft medicine
4.     Iroquois: Decoction root taken or dried root smoked as a panacea
Pentstemon fruitcosus
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant an emetic to cure love sickness
Persea borbonia
1.    Seminole: Leaf used as an emetic to purify after funerals, during apprenticeships, and after death of a patient; infusion of leaves added to food after a recent death; plant used to treat sun sickness, rainbow sickness, thunder sickness, mist sickness, bear sickness, wolf sickness, leaves used for baby and adult sickness caused by adultery; dead people’s sickness, raccoon sickness, otter sickness, bird sickness, buzzard sickness, deer sickness, fire sickness, ghost sickness, opossum sickness, scalping sickness, cat sickness, hog sickness, turkey sickness; taken by doctor as an emetic to strengthen his magic and to prevent his next patient from getting worse; plant used as emetic during rituals; leaves sung over to get the love of a particular girl; baby charm to prevent nightmares about opossums and raccoons; panacea believed to cure anything; leaves used in funeral ceremonies; leaves carried by burial party and placed on top of casket; leaves burned to keep the soul of the recently deceased from returning home
Phaseolus coccineus
1.    Iroquois: Seeds used extensively in planting and harvest thanksgiving rituals
Phaseolus lunatus
1.    Iroquois: Seeds used extensively in planting and harvest thanksgiving rituals
Phaseolus vulgaris
1.    Iroquois: Seeds used extensively in planting and harvest thanksgiving rituals
Phoradendrum leucarpum
1.    Cherokee: Emetic for love sickness
2.    Seminole:  Leaves steamed for deer sickness; emetic used during rituals
Phragmites australis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction roots and bottle brush grass used to make corn seed soak before planting
Phytolacca americana
1.    Delaware: Herbal steam used for rheumatism
2.    Iroquois: Tied in a poplar tree, then placed among its roots, as love medicine; plant used for bewitchment
Picea species
1.    Iroquois: Leaves smoked in ritual
Piloblephis rigida
1.    Seminole: infusion of leaves added to food after a recent death
Pinus elliottii
1.    Seminole:  Used to treat ballgame sickness; used to make seats in Longhouse; used for religious scarification
Pinus glabra
1.    Cherokee: Needles and resin used for smudge and fragrance
Pinus strobus
1.    Iroquois: Leaves burned spring and fall as smudge to fill house with smoke and prevent all sickness and to drive ghosts away from house; smoke used to wash someone who has seen a ghost
Pinus virginiana
1.    Cherokee: Needles and resin used for smudge and fragrance; needles brewed to give ball players good wind
Platanthera grandiflora
1.    Iroquois: Decoction dried roots taken to frighten away ghosts
Platanthera psycodes
1.    Iroquois: Infusion taken or placed on injured part as a panacea
Polygonum arenastrum
1.    Iroquois: Powdered dry root place in someone’s tea as love medicine
Podophyllum peltatum
1.    Iroquois:  Decoction leaves with other plants used as medicine to soak corn seeds before planting
2.    Delaware: Plant used as a love charm
Populus alba
1.    Iroquois: Decoction branches as wash for anti-love medicine
Populus deltoides
1.    Choctaw: Stems, bark, and leaves used as herbal steam for snakebite
2.    Delaware: Bark combined with black haw and wild plum barks and used by women for weakness and debility
Potamogeton
1.    Iroquois: Poultice for men’s soreness caused by bewitchment
Potentilla canadensis
1.    Natchez: Plant given to person who has been bewitched
Prenanthes trifoliata
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root as wash for deer hunting medicine; root chewed and rubbed on hands and face as love medicine
Prunella vulgaris*
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant taken as panacea
Pteridium aquilinum
1.    Iroquois:  Ingredients placed in coffin with a root shaped into a person and the person dies in ten days
Quercus alba
1.    Delaware: Panacea used to cure anything
2.    Iroquois: Decoction used “when your woman goes off and won’t come back”
Quercus bicolor
1.    Iroquois: Takes away loneliness when wife is running around
Quercus laurifolia
1.    Choctaw: Boiled for paint
Quercus phellos
1.    Seminole: Decoction bark for ballgame sickness; decoction wood ashes placed on tongue to cleanse body and strengthen a marriage
Quercus texana
1.    Choctaw: Boiled for paint
Quercus virginiana
1.    Choctaw: Boiled for paint
2.    2. Seminole: Used for ballgame sickness; decoction wood ashes placed on tongue to purify body and strengthen a marriage
Quercus stellata
1.    Choctaw: Boiled for paint
Rhododendron maximum
1.    Cherokee: Clumps of leaves thrown into fire around which is danced to bring cold weather
Rhus copallinum
1.    Delaware: Leaves and root used in ceremonial tobacco mix
Rosa acicularis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant and doll for black magic
Rubus allgheniensis
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root makes dogs good hunters and protects them against theft
Rubus occidentalis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction taken by hunter and his wife to prevent his wife from committing adultery while he is gone hunting
Rubus odoratus
1.    Iroquois: Leaves placed inside shoes of forest runners for protection
Rumex crispus*
1.    Iroquois: Wash for hands, face, and clothes for love medicine; panacea to cure anything
Salix caroliniana
1.    Seminole: Ceremonial emetic; purification emetic after funerals, during apprenticeships, and after death of a patient; used to strengthen practitioners; emetic for rainbow sickness, thunder sickness, mist sickness, fire sickness, taken by men who have menstruation sickness, lightning sickness, lion sickness; used to vomit out object witch shot into body; infusion root to increase hunting luck; bark used as medicine to prevent adultery; plant made into medicine and used to prevent new mother’s condition from contaminating the camp
Salix humilis
1.    Seminole: Plant taken for sun sickness; infusion taken to increase hunting luck
Sambucus canadensis
1.    Seminole: Bark a purification emetic after funerals, during apprenticeships, and after death of a patient
2.    Iroquois:  decoction flowers and other plants used as medicine to soak corn seed before planting
Sanguinaria canadensis
1.    Delaware: Pea size piece of root taken for 30 days for debility; root used to make red face paint for Longhouse Ceremony; panacea to cure anything
2.     Iroquois: Decoction root a panacea; smoke from plant used as a wash for a person who has seen a dead person; dye plant
Sarracenia purpurea
1.    Iroquois: basket medicine; powdered plant sprinkled on person for love medicine; sprinkled on person for lacrosse medicine
Sassafras albidum
1.    Cherokee: used as fragrance; infusion bark for overweight
2.    Seminole: Used to treat wolf sickness, cow sickness, raccoon sickness, otter sickness, opossum sickness, ghost sickness, horse sickness, cat sickness, wolf ghost sickness, monkey sickness; emetic for purification after funerals, during apprenticeships, after death of a patient
Saxifraga pensylvanica
1.    Iroquois: Ingredient in Little Water Medicine ritual, taken or placed on an injury
Sedum telephium
1.    Iroquois: Poultice stalks and leaves applied to injuries that are a result of being witched
Serenoa repens
1.    Seminole: Plant used to make dance fans and rattles
Sideroxylon foetidissimum
1.    Seminole: Decoction wood ashes placed on tongue to cleanse body and strengthen a marriage
Silphium perfoliatum
1.    Iroquois: Burned root soot placed on cheek to prevent sickness caused by the dead
Smilax tamnoides
1.    Iroquois: Plant used to make doll to be used to kill a woman who is exploiting you
Solidago canadensis
1.    Iroquois:  Infusion root to stop love medicine; plant used as gambling medicine
Sparganium eurycarpum
1.    Iroquois: Plant used as poultice for men’s soreness caused by witchcraft
Spirea species
1.    Iroquois: Infusion bark from young twigs taken as antidote for love medicine
Symplocarpus foetidus
1.    Iroquois:  Poultice used on a bite from a fight or a dog and has caused biter’s teeth to fall out
Tanacetum vulgare*
1.    Iroquois: Poultice a panacea for anything
Taraxacum officinale*
1.    Iroquois: Decoction root as wash for love medicine; decoction root as wash for anti-witch medicine
Taxodium ascendens
1.    Seminole: Plant used to make hunting dance posts; plant used for burial purposes and made into coffin logs
Tilia americana
1.    Iroquois: Infusion twigs and roots taken as a panacea
Trillium species
1.    Iroquois: Compound used to detect bewitchment
Triosteum perfoliatum
1.    Iroquois:  Decoction roots taken or poultice applied to stomach trouble caused by witchcraft
Tsuga canadensis
1.    Delaware: Herbal steam for rheumatism
Ulmus rubra
1.    Creek: Decoction of bark with gunpowder taken to enhance sympathetic magic
Urtica dioica*
1.    Iroquois: Compound plant and dried snake blood used as witching medicine
Vaccinium angustifolium
1.    Iroquois: Berries used ritually by those desiring health and prosperity in the coming season
Vaccinium myrsinites
1.    Seminole: Used to treat hog sickness; added to food after recent death
Verbena hastata
1.    Iroquois: Infusion leaves used to make obnoxious person leave
Veratrum viride
1.    Cherokee: Panacea rubbed into deliberately made scratches on legs for leg ailments
Verbesina virginica
1.    Seminole: Plant used to treat bear sickness, fire sickness, mist sickness; purification emetic after funerals, during apprenticeships, and after death of patient
Veronica officinalis
1.    Iroquois: Decoction plant taken to neutralize witchcraft and spoil hunting
Veronicastrum virginicum
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root taken as panacea; infusion root taken as witch medicine
Viburnum acerifolium
1.    Iroquois:  Infusion bark taken and applied as poultice for pain caused by witchcraft
Viburnum lantanoides
1.    Iroquois: Plant used as love medicine
Vicia americana
1.    Iroquois: Infusion root used by women as love medicine
Vicia sativa*
1.    Iroquois: Infusion plant used as love medicine
Viola sagittata
1.    Iroquois: Compound used to detect bewitchment
Viola species
1.    Iroquois: Decoction roots taken as a panacea
Viola striata
1.    Iroquois: Plant used to make girl sick and crazy by her rejected suitor after he has been refused by her parents
Vitis aestivalis
1.    Seminole: Used as ritual emetic
Vitis munsoniana
1.    Seminole: Added to food after recent death; emetic used in ritual
Vitis rupestris
1.    Delaware: Vine mixed with other plants and used as tonic for frail women
Xanthium strumarium
1.    Iroquois: Plant ingredient in witching medicine
Yucca filamentosa
1.    Cherokee: Used in Green Corn Ceremony
Zea mays
1.    Delaware: Used in ritual feast of Longhouse Ceremony
2.    Iroquois: Husk made into elaborate ritual masks
3.    Seminole: Plant used for religious scarification; plant used at Busk Ceremonies

SEMINOLE SICKNESSES  AND THEIR SYMPTOMS
Buzzard: vomiting
Deer: numb, painful limbs and joints
Fire: fever and body aches
Dance Fire: fever
Opossum: appetite loss and drooling
Cat: nausea
Ballgame: sores, back or limb pain, hemorrhoids
Menstruation: stomachache, headache, and body soreness; lassitude, laziness and weakness; yellow eyes and skin, weakness and shaking head
Lightning: (I couldn’t find the actual symptoms)
Lion: panting, staring, and tongue hanging out
Cow: lower chest pain, digestive disturbances, and diarrhea
Horse: nausea, constipation, and blocked urination
Wolf Ghost: diarrhea, painful defecation
Monkey: fever, itch, and enlarged eyes
Turkey: dizziness and craziness
Dog: appetite loss and drooling
Rainbow: fever, stiff neck, and backache
Thunder: fever, dizziness, headache, and diarrhea
Scalping: severe headache, backache, and low fever
Mist: eye disease, fever, and chills
Eagle: stiff neck or back
Fawn: swollen legs and face
Ghost: dizziness and staggering; grief, cough, appetite loss, and vomiting
Hog: unconsciousness
Sun: eye disease, headache, high fever, and diarrhea
Bear: fever, headache, thirst, constipation, and blocked urination
Wolf: vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, and frequent urination
Dead People: (I couldn’t find the actual symptoms)
Baby Sickness from Adultery: appetite loss, fever, headache, and diarrhea
Adult Sickness from Adultery: headache, body pain, and crossed fingers
Raccoon: infant diarrhea
Otter: diarrhea and vomiting
Bird: appetite loss, diarrhea, and vomiting

Reference for Plant Appendix: Native American Ethnobotany by Daniel Moerman, published by Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 1998




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