Appendix

Essay Appendix

 

Please note that my studies were limited to the indigenous species of the British Isles. To grasp the resources of the Mesolithic people of Britain might have had at their disposal I had to research many other Temperate Zone tribes. I concluded there was no reason to doubt that tribal Britain didn’t use those species similarly to other tribe’s application of them. In the absence of definitive proof I was left with informed speculation, and although respectably comprehensive, my assertions remain, in the end, speculative. Conversely, there is no reason to believe that many more uses, beyond our understanding now, were known, as well as uses for many other species that now elude us. The Compendium for Spirit Handling, expected release this year, is a collection of the spiritual or magical properties I found associated with many of the species in this appendix. The following lists are in Latin and cross-indexes are accessible on this website.

Ref: EVERYDAY THINGS HAVE ANCIENT ROOTS

BOWS AND BOWSTRINGS

Acer
Alnus
Betula
Clematis (bowstring)
Cornus
Equisetum (all purpose “sandpaper”)
Fraxinus
Juniperus
Juncus (sandpaper for smoothing bows)
Malus
Prunus
Quercus
Salix
Sambucus
Taxus
Urtica (bowstring)

ARROWS

Acer (also points)
Allium (to shine arrows)
Alnus
Artemisia
Atriplex
Cornus
Corylus
Fraxinus
Ilex
Phragmites
Prunus
Quercus
Ribes (also points)
Rosa
Salix
Sambucus (also points)
Taxus (also points)

SPEARS, SHAFTS, LANCES, GAFFS, WANDS

Betula
Buxus
Cornus
Corylus (also wands)
Fraxinus (also staffs and wands)
Ilex
Juniperus
Malus
Populus
Prunus (also staffs and wands)
Quercus
Salix
Taxus (also staffs and wands)

HANDLES, AWLS, MAULS

Acre
Alnus
Arctostaphylos
Buxus
Carpinus
Cornus
Corylus
Crataegus
Fraxinus
Juniperus
Malus
Pinus
Quercus
Rosa
Taxus

BONDING AGENTS (attaching points & feathers to arrows & shafts;
vines, strips of bark, twisted fibers such as those used
for fishnets or weaving bound head to shaft with the
inclusion of bonding agents)

Betula
Endymion
Muscari
Pinus
Populus
Prunus
Taxus

LURES

Achillea
Artemisia
Cornus
Heracleum
Rumex

DIGGING STICKS

Crataegus
Malus

TRAPS AND SNARES

Viburnum
Clematis
Iris

FISHING NETS, SNARES AND LINE

Acre
Corylus
Iris
Linum
Phalaris
Populus
Prunus
Ribes
Rosa
Scirpus
Taxus
Tilia
Ulmus
Urtica

FISH HOOKS

Crataegus thorns
Malus
Populus
Taxus

BAIT AND LURES

Angelica
Heracleum
Polygonum
Spirogyra
Suaeda
Valeriana

PIGMENTS FOR WOOD

Alnus (red, orange, yellow for feathers)
Aster (blue)
Candelaria
Chenopodium
Conocephalum (green)
Erysimum (yellow)
Evernia (yellow)
Letharia (yellow for feathers)
Lithospermum
Papaver (yellow)
Pinus (varnish)
Populus (red, yellow, orange for feathers)
Prunus
Quercus (red)
Sambucus (red, orange, yellow)
Viola (blue)
Xanthoria

DRAWING CHARCOAL

Tilia
Euonymus

Pitch was used as a preservative by being applied as a finish coat over rock paintings.

Wooden articles including arrows were sometimes undercoated with pitch before paint was applied.

Angelica root replenished the supernatural power believed in the paint.

TATTOOING SOOT

Acre
Artemisia
Cornus
Crataegus thorns as needles
Lonicera
Papaver
Pinus
Populus
Ribes thorns as needles

BODY PAINT

Acre (charcoal)
Alnus (red)
Evernia (yellow)
Juniperus (charcoal)
Lithospermum (yellow)
Lycopus (stains skin dark)
Pyrola
Salix (charcoal)
Sambucus (red, orange, yellow)
Typha (yellow pollen)
Xanthoria

DRUMS AND ACCESSORIES

Acre burls & knots (drums)
Cornus (drumsticks)
Corylus (drumsticks)
Juniperus (drum frames)
Pinus (drums)
Populus (drums)
Quercus (drumsticks)
Salix (drums & drumsticks)
Sambucus (tapping sticks)
Taxus (drum frames)
Tilia (sounding board)
Ulmus (drum frame)

Masked drummers ate the nutmeats of Corylus & Fagus.

RATTLES

Acre burls & knots
Alnus
Arctostaphylos berries in rattle
Juniperus
Populus

FLUTES

Alnus
Betula
Buxus
Equisetum
Eupatorium
Heracleum
Juniperus
Phragmites
Pinus
Prunus
Salix
Sambucus
Scirpus

WEAVING TOOLS

Alnus (spinning wheels)
Carduus (combs)
Dipsacus (combs)
Fraxinus
Phragmites (weaving rods)
Salix (warp & heddle sticks, looms)
Sambucus (shuttles)

It would seem that any wood suitable for tool handles probably went to many weaving tools.

WEAVING FIBERS

Cirsium
Cytisus
Elymus
Epilobium
Eriophorum
Genista
Geranium
Humulus
Juniperus
Lathyrus
Linum
Lycopodium
Molinia
Populus
Salix
Sphagnum
Taxus
Tilia
Urtica

TEXTILE PRESERVATIVES, REPELLENTS, PERFUMES

Angelica
Antennaria
Artemisia
Chrysanthemum
Filipendula
Geum
Gnaphalium
Thalictrum

TEXTILE DYES

Achillea (yellow, green)
Actaea (black)
Agrimonia (yellow)
Alchemilla (green)
Allium (brown, gold, green)
Alnus (all but blue)
Angelica (green)
Arctostaphylos (pink, gray, violet)
Aster (blue)
Atriplex (yellow to black)
Bazzania (yellow)
Betula (yellow, brown)
Calendula (yellow)
Cichorium (blue)
Convallaria (green)
Cornus (yellow)
Corylus (blue)
Cytisus (green)
Digitalis (black)
Equisetum (pink)
Euonymus (yellow)
Filipendula (yellow, blue, black)
Fraxinus (blue)
Fumaria (yellow)
Gallium (red)
Genista (yellow)
Heracleum (yellow)
Hippophae (yellow)
Hypericum (yellow, orange, red)
Ilex (red)
Impatiens (yellow, red, orange)
Juncus (green)
Linaria (yellow, purple)
Lithospermum (red, purple)
Lonicera (purple)
Lycopus (black)
Malus (red, orange, yellow)
Mercurialis (blue)
Myrica (yellow to brown)
Oxalis (yellow)
Pinus (blue)
Quercus (red to brown)
Ranunculus (red)
Reseda (yellow)
Rosa (orange)
Rubia (pink, purple, red)
Rubus (yellow)
Rumex (red, yellow, green)
Salix (red, black)
Sambucus (red, yellow)
Tanacetum (yellow)
Taraxacum (magenta)
Taxus (green)
Ulex (yellow)
Urtica (green, yellow)
Veronica (purple)

MORDANT

Alnus
Juniperus ashes
Lycopodium
Prunus
Quercus

TANNING PRESERVATION, WATERPROOFING, TANNIC ACID INCLUDING SMOKE

Alnus
Arctostaphylos
Artemisia
Agrimonia
Betula
Bryonia
Cornus
Cytisus
Juniperus
Pinus
Prunus
Quercus
Rubusv
Sorbus
Symphytum
Tanacetum

I have successfully used moss tea in brain tanning oil

COLORANTS FOR HIDE

Acre
Alnus (red to yellow)
Atriplex ashes (red)
Juniperus (green, yellow)
Quercus (black)
Rumex (yellow, orange, red)

TANNING TOOLS

Anthoxanthum sewing needles
Cornus branches for stretching frames
Populus branches for scraping
Rosa wood sewing needles
Salix branches for scraping

BASKET FIBERS INCLUDING SPLIT WOODS AND ROOTS

Acre
Alnus
Anthoxanthum
Avena
Betula
Carex
Cornus
Corylus
Cynosurus
Cytisus
Equisetum
Fraxinus
Iris
Juniperus
Juncus
Linum
Lonicera
Luzula
Petasites
Phalaris
Phragmites
Phyllospadix
Pinus
Populus
Prunus
Pteridium
Quercus
Rosa
Salix
Scheuchzeria
Scirpus
Solidago
Taxus
Tilia
Typha
Ulmus
Urtica
Viburnum

DYES FOR BASKETS

Alnus (red, orange, brown)
Carex (black)
Iris
Juniperus (red)
Quercus (red) acorn cups for black
Ranunculus (yellow)
Rumex (red through gold, orange, brown, green)
Sambucus (red, yellow, black, purple)
Suaeda

BASKET SEALANT

Arctostaphylos berries
Pinus resin

BASKET WASHES TO REMOVE THE SPIRIT OF THE MAKER FROM THE BASKET OR TO PURIFY THE BASKET

Agrimonia
Corallorhiza
Epilobium
Gallium

Taxus wood was used for mat making needles

Ref: THE SANCTITY OF ANCIENT HUNTERS

PROTECTION AGAINST INJURY, PREDATION, SPIRITS

Angelica
Artemisia
Campanula
Centaurium
Chrysanthemum
Erigeron
Gallium
Humulus
Juniperus
Populus
Ranunculus
Rosa
Sium
Thlaspi
Urtica
Veronica
Viscum

PROTECTION AGAINST THUNDER, LIGHTNING, STORMS

Acinos
Betula
Bryonia
Chenopodium
Chrysanthemum
Crataegus
Equisetum
Erigeron
Fraxinus
Ilex
Juniperus
Lithospermum
Lobelia
Marrubium
Pinus
Plantago
Quercus
Salix
Sambucus
Silybum
Sorbus
Valeriana
Verbena

PROTECTION AGAINST FROSTBITE

Angelica
Descurania
Fagus
Populus

PROTECTION AGAINST NSOWBLINDNESS

Artemisia
Cornus
Malus
Polygonatum

PROTECTION AGAINST THE DISTRACTION OF SEXUAL ABSTINENCE

Humulus
Lonicera
Nymphaea
Verbena

SUPPRESSING THIRST

Arctostaphylos
Artemisia
Juniperus
Malus
Oxalis
Rumex

WATER SIGNS

Juncus
Pteridium

ATTRACTING QUARRY

Aster
Chamaemelum
Cicuta
Crataegus
Datura
Erigeron
Hieracium
Ilex
Lactuca
Polygonatum
Polygonum
Ranunculus
Rumex
Spiranthes
Tanacetum
Trientalis
Valeriana
Veronica

STRENGTH AND STAMINA, COMBATTING FATIGUE

Artemisia
Chrysanthemum
Cornus
Datura
Eupatorium
Juniperus
Lithospermum
Malus
Postelsia
Senecio

EMPOWERMENT, JUDGEMENT, COURAGE, CLARITY

Cichorium
Corylus
Ilex
Leontodon
Lonicera
Mentha
Pinus
Prunella
Prunus
Quercus
Salix
Taxus
Urtica
Verbascum

PURIFICATION OF THE HUNTER

Ilex
Populus

PURIFICATION, STRENGTH & RESTORATION OF WEAPONS

Astragalus
Corallorhiza
Lonicera
Populus
Rosa
Rubus
Salvia

INVISIBILITY

Acre
Allium
Aster
Mentha
Pinus
Populus
Prunus
Pteridium
Rosa
Vicia

BLESSINGS OR GOOD LUCK MEDICINE

Alnus
Angelica
Antennaria
Arctostaphylos
Artemisia
Cardamine
Datura
Erigeron
Fraxinus
Fucus
Heracleum
Humulus
Juniperus
Lithospermum
Lonicera
Polystichum
Pyrola
Salix
Senecio
Thalictrum
Valeriana
Veronica

Ref: THE PRAYER OF TRANSCENDENT SMOKE

TOOLS

Acer (bellows, pipe stems & bowls, torch handles, charcoal)
Alectoria (tinder)
Alnus (tinder, charcoal)
Angelica (pipe stems)
Arctostaphylos ((pipes, pipe stems)
Betula (bow for fire drill)
Carduus (seed for lamp oil)
Carex (wick, torches)
Cornicularia (tinder)
Cornus (pipe stems)
Corylus (tinder)
Eriophorum (wick)
Euonymus (pipe stems)
Fraxinus (pipes)
Gallium (tinder)
Ilex (fire drill)
Juniperus (torches, carrying fire, tinder)
(base for fire drill)
Linum (wick)
Lonicera (pipe stems)
Onopordum (seed for lamp oil)
Phragmites (fire drills, pipes, pipe stems)
Pinus (fire tongs, charcoal)
Populus (fire drill, pokers, lighting pipes)
Prunus (fire drill)
(pitch mixed with grease to smooth & polish pipes)
Quercus (bark to carry fire from one place to another)
(leaves to wrap other herbs for ritual smokes)
Rhamnus (torches)
Rhododendron (pipes)
Ribes (pipe stems)
Rosa (pipe bowls, pipe stems)
Rubus (pipe bowls)
Rumex (tinder)
Salix (fire drill)
(coiled roots for hearth)
(hoops for bellows frame)
Sambucus (pipe bowls, tinder, fire drills)
Scirpus (pipe stems)
Taxus (pipes, tongs)
Typha (decoration for pipes)
Ulmus (tinder)
Urtica (seed for lamp oil)
Verbascum (tinder, wick, torches)

FIRES

Acer (ritual appeasement, exorcismal, love medicine)
Arctostaphylos (ritual firs; bright, long lasting coals)
Betula (to purify surroundings)
Corylus (first choice for baking ovens)
Crataegus (perpetual fires, hottest wood known)
Fagus (ancestral memory, reflective knowledge, exorcismal)
Fraxinus (quiet fires)
Juniperus (protection, exorcism, empowerment, visions)
Pinus (pinecones burned ritually to stop rain)
Populus (enhances practitioner’s ability, protection, love
medicine)
Prunus (divination, empowerment, protection)
Quercus (ritual & Solstice fires)
Ulex (protection, learning, awareness of the need for
sharing)
Ulmus (compassion, harmony, confidence, regeneration)

MEDICAL SMUDGE OR SMOKE

Allium
Alnus
Anemone
Angelica
Arenaria
Artemisia
Asplenium
Aster
Barbula
Betula
Bidens
Brassica
Bryum
Campanula
Chamaemelum
Clematis
Cornus
Corylus
Cynoglossum
Datura
Equisetum
Erigeron
Eupatorium
Euphrasia
Evernia
Gnaphalium
Juniperus
Ligusticum
Lithospermum
Matricaria
Octoblephorum
Papaver
Pinus
Pteridium
Quercus
Rhamnus
Rhododendron
Salix
Salvia
Sanguisorba
Senecio
Silene
Solanum
Solidago
Sonchus
Sorbus
Tilia
Tussilago
Urtica
Valeriana
Verbascum

INCLUDED IN SMOKE MIXTURES

Alnus
Angelica
Antennaria
Aquilegia
Arctostaphylos
Arenaria
Cornus
Juniperus
Menyanthes
Myrica
Populus
Rosa
Salix
Silene
Vaccinium
Valeriana
Viburnum

GOOD LUCK WHILE HUNTING

Arctostaphylos
Pinus

ATTRACTING GAME

Aquilegia
Arctostaphylos

LOVE MEDICINE

Achillea
Datura
Inula
Nepeta
Origanum
Polygonatum
Salix
Scirpus
Solidago
Verbascum
Viburnum

PURIFICATION AND RITUAL

Acer
Achillea
Angelica
Antennaria
Artemisia
Betula
Catabrosa
Chamaemelum
Crataegus
Equisetum
Foeniculum
Glyceria
Hypericum
Juniperus
Matricaria
Myrica
Pinus
Prunus
Quercus
Sambucus
Scirpus
Solidago
Taxus
Thymus
Ulex
Ulmus
Veronica

EXORCISMAL

Arctium
Artemisia
Datura
Echium
Equisetum
Euonymus
Fumaria
Heracleum
Juniperus
Origanum
Quercus
Sanguisorba
Solidago
Vaccinium
Verbascum
Veronica

REPELLENTS

Achillea
Acinos
Antennaria
Anthoxanthum
Foeniculum
Linum
Lysimachia
Melilotus
Myrica
Pulicaria
Salvia
Verbascum
Veronica

PROTECTION AGAINST SPIRITS, INJURY, ILLNESS

Anthoxanthum
Arctium
Artemisia
Chamaemelum
Foeniculum
Gallium
Hypericum
Inula
Juniperus
Lithospermum
Matricaria
Menyanthes
Origanum
Polygonatum
Salvia
Scutellaria
Stachys
Valeriana
Verbascum

GOOD LUCK

Anemone
Nepeta
Stachys

PROSPERITY

Echium
Gallium
Origanum

FUNERALS AND MEMORIALS

Juniperus
Valeriana
Viola

STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE

Anemone
Foeniculum
Gallium
Myrica
Postelsia
Quercus

MAGIC

Achillea
Althaea
Anemone
Aquilegia
Antennaria
Arctium
Artemisia
Cornus
Corydalis
Corylus
Foeniculum
Fraxinus
Gnaphalium
Inula
Juniperus
Lysimachia
Nepeta
Polygonatum
Sanguisorba
Scutellaria
Senecio
Solidago
Thymus
Valeriana
Verbascum

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